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LABORATORY: Electron Microprobe Laboratory
LOCATION: Sezione di Mineralogia, Petrografia, Geochimica e Giacimenti Minerari
EQUIPMENT: JEOL 8200 Super Probe

PRINCIPAL SPECIFICATIONS
Filament: Precentered tungsten (W) hairpin type
Accelerating voltage: 200 V to 30 kV (100 V steps)
Probe current range: 10-12 to 10-5 Å
Secondary detector: Collector electrode, scintillator, light guide, PMT
Backscattered detector: Si P-N junction
Magnification: 40× to 300,000×
Maximum single image resolution: 2048 × 2048 pixels (net-map possible)
OMT: Transmission Illuminator
OM: Optical microscope
CCD color camera

SPECIMEN STAGE
- Maximum specimen size: 100—100—20 (H) mm
- Analyzable area: 80—80 mm
- Working distance (WD): 11 mm
- Driving step sizes Half-step 0.5 μm/step, Micro-step 0.02 μm/step

WDS - X-ray SPECTROMETER SYSTEM

Detectable element range: 4Be to 92U
Detectable wavelength: 0.087 to 9.3 nm
Number of WDS spectrometers: five
Atomic number resolution on BSE (Z): less/equal than 0.1 (CuZ)
Quantification software of X-ray mapping via ZAF on pixel: possible

EDS - X-ray SPECTROMETER SYSTEM
Detectable element range: 11Na to 92U
Energy resolution (FWHM): 144 eV or better

CL -C CATHODOLUMINESCENCE SYSTEM
SOFTWARE
EPMA operation software
EDS operation software
WDS/EDS quantitative analysis software
Phi-Rho-Z Quantitative Analysis Program
WDS/EDS mapping
WDS/EDS map data analysis (including combination mapping function)

ANALYTICAL AND RESEARCH ACTIVITY: Chemical and textural analyses on Earth Materials Chemical and textural characterization on metals and alloys, steels, ceramics composites, and other artificial materials.

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LABORATORY: Scattered Electronic Microscope  (EDS system)
LOCATION: Sezione di Mineralogia, Petrografia, Geochimica e Giacimenti Minerari
EQUIPMENT: Cambridge Stereoscan 360 con LaB6.
Carbon-Coating Scan COAT SIX     


ANALYTICAL AND RESEARCH ACTIVITY:  
Sample processing                                                                  
Morphological analyses on rocks, fossils and soils.
Quantitative chemicall analyses on rocks, minerals and soils

 

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LABORATORY: Chemical Laboratory
LOCATION: Sezione di Mineralogia, Petrografia, Geochimica e Giacimenti Minerari
EQUIPMENT: Precision balance

drying oven (T max 300C)
High T oven (T max 1200C)
micro wave oven Milestone mls 1200 mega

Potentiometer/pHmeter Orion 720
Potentiometer WTW MultiLine P3
Orbeco-Hellige 975 MP-02

ANALYTICAL AND RESEARCH ACTIVITY: Sample processing for ion analyses on waters and soils (Major and trace element analyses and Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio determination).

 

 

  

 

 

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LABORATORY
: Infrared spectrometric laboratorY (FTR + UV)
LOCATION: Sezione di Mineralogia, Petrografia, Geochimica e Giacimenti Minerari
EQUIPMENT: Spectrometer Nicolet NEXUS FTIR  
   

ANALYTICAL AND RESEARCH ACTIVITY
: Mineralogical analyses on minerals, gems and soils

 

 

 

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LABORATORY: Inductively coupled plasma laboratory (ICP)
LOCATION: Sezione di Mineralogia, Petrografia, Geochimica e Giacimenti Minerari
EQUIPMENT: Spectrometer  Jobin-Yvon JY24   
 

ANALYTICAL AND RESEARCH ACTIVITY:
Chemical analyses on waters, soils and rocks (major and trace elements.
 

 

 

 

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LABORATORY: X-ray fluorescence laboratory
LOCATION: Sezione di Mineralogia, Petrografia, Geochimica e Giacimenti Minerari
EQUIPMENT: X-ray fluorescence spectrometer: Philips Modello PW1404   
 

ANALYTICAL AND RESEARCH ACTIVITY
: Chemical analyses on rocks, minerals and soils of major elements and trace elements 

 

 

 

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LABORATORY: Single Crystal X-Ray Laboratory
LOCATION: Sezione di Mineralogia, Petrografia, Geochimica e Giacimenti Minerari
EQUIPMENT: Oxford Xcalibur

The Oxford Xcalibur is a 4-circle kappa diffractometer equipped with both point and CCD detector. The high resolution achieved and the accuracy of the data are fundamental for electron density studies and situations where small, weak samples are being studied. For our investigations focused to structural studies at non ambient conditions, the experimental setting has been implemented with a diamond anvil cell (DAC) for in situ high-pressure measurements. Machine control, data collection parameters setting and data reduction are governed by CrysAlis an all-in-one crystallographic software package.

KM4 Kuma is another machine in our lab. It is a single-crystal kappa diffractometer with point detector.

Weissenberg and precession cameras, old but still perfectly working, have to be mentioned to complete the instrument list.     

ANALYTICAL AND RESEARCH ACTIVITY: Rock-forming minerals, Structure analysis, Equation of State, Elastic properties.

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LABORATORY: X-ray powder diffraction laboratory
LOCATION: Sezione di Mineralogia, Petrografia, Geochimica e Giacimenti Minerari
EQUIPMENT: X-ray powder diffractometer Philips X’pert MPD
with high temperature chamber
It's a theta/theta diffractometer, with a double detector system: a proportional counter and a position sensitive detector are present. The diffractometer is equipped with a high-temperature chamber (AHT-PAP 1600), with a maximum temperature of 1600°C.
The diffractometer is fully computer-integrated, with incident and anti-scatter optics completely programmable. The two detectors can be used for different purposes: for structural analyses the former, and for fast reaction kinetics the latter.
The AHT hot chamber is equipped with a stepper motor, that moves the sample downwards as a function of the thermal expansion of the sample holder, in order to keep the sample in the ideal diffraction position. The sample, at the same time, can be spinned for a better counting statistics and temperature uniformity. Temperature oscillations inside the chamber are never bigger than 1°C, even at the highest attainable temperature (1600°C), and for temperatures lower than 1200°C are within 0.2°. The data quality is therefore particularly good, and data collected with this instrument can be used for structure refinement at high temperature

High resolution X-ray powder diffractometer Panalytical X’pert Pro
It’s a high-resolution powder diffractomer, equipped with an incident beam monochromator, that separates the Ka1 and the Ka2, allowing the measurements to be performed with the Ka1 only. The diffractometer can work with the usual Bragg Brentano geometry (divergent beam) as well as with a parallel beam geometry. The latter allows the use of rough samples, of samples not perfectly positioned on the goniometer circle, and has a particularly good signal-to-noise ratio. The detector X’Celerator completes the instrument, allowing very fast data collection (for a qualitative analysis the data collection time is of the order of minutes), together with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio. A 15 positions sample changer is also mounted on the instrument.    

ANALYTICAL AND RESEARCH ACTIVITY:
High resolution powder diffraction, qualitative and quantitative analyses, structural refinements with the Rietveld method, in-situ high temperature experiments

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LABORATORY: Transmission Electron Microscopy
LOCATION: Sezione di Mineralogia, Petrografia, Geochimica e Giacimenti Minerari
EQUIPMENT: Transmission Electron Microscope: FEI Tecnai G2 F20

The FEI Tecnai F20 is a Field Emission Gun (FEG) transmission electron microscope.
The accelerating voltage is 200 kV.
The microscope is equipped with a S-Twin lens that gives a point resolution of 0.24 nm.
An energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) with ultrathin window is present.
The imaging system is composed by one tv rate 626 Gatan and one slow scan 794 Gatan CCD cameras.
All the detectors are enbedded in the control unit of the microscope.
The sample holder is double tilt.
Thank to the FEG gun very small probes (<0.3 nm) are avilable.

Point resolution (nm) 0.24
Line resolution (nm) 0.1
Information limit (nm) 0.15
Cs objective (mm) 1.2
Cc objective (mm) 1.2
Focal length (mm) 1.7
Minimum focus step (nm) 1.8
Maximum eucentric tilt ± 40º
TEM magnification 25x – 1030 kx
SA diffraction camera length (mm) 40 – 4300
Maximum diffraction half angle ± 12º     

ANALYTICAL AND RESEARCH ACTIVITY:
Electron Crystallography Structure analysis: intergrowth, exsolution, interfaces Defect studies



 
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